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Sunday, May 19, 2024

TWO ARTICLES: First case of bird flu jumping from cow to human, first finding of H5N1 in New York City birds

FIRST ARTICLE: First case of highly pathogenic avian influenza transmitted from cow to human confirmed

Texas Tech University

Texas Tech University's Biological Threat Research Laboratory (BTRL) played a key role in detecting the first case of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A (H5N1) transmitted from a mammal (dairy cow) to a human.

The case was made public in an article published in the New England Journal of Medicine. Steve Presley, the director of The Institute of Environmental and Human Health (TIEHH) and the BTRL, and Cynthia Reinoso Webb, the biological threat coordinator at TIEHH, were co-authors on the journal publication.

The journal article explains that in March a farm worker who reported no contact with sick or dead birds, but who was in contact with dairy cattle, began showing symptoms in the eye and samples were collected by the regional health department to test for potential influenza A.

Initial testing of the samples was performed at the BTRL, which is a component of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Laboratory Response Network-Biological (LRN-B) located at TIEHH.

"It's a huge thing that the virus has jumped from birds to mammals, dairy cows in this case, and then to humans," Presley said. "That's why this paper in the New England Journal of Medicine is very significant. It's going to lay the foundation, I believe, for a lot of research in the future of how the virus is evolving."

The involvement of Texas Tech's BTRL is a continuation of the partnership between regional, state and federal public health partners.

"Being part of the CDC LRN-B, we have the standing capability to test for a lot of biological threats and some that are considered emergent," Reinoso Webb explained.

The lab's standby status allowed Reinoso Webb and the Texas Tech BTRL team to respond quickly to the needs of the regional public health authority. Knowing the potential dangers of the virus, Reinoso Webb pushed the testing into the safest laboratory available, and the team went to work.

Having received the samples in the early evening, results were being reported to regional, state and federal levels within hours. By the next day the samples were on their way to the CDC for further testing and confirmation.

"We were on the phone with the CDC until around midnight discussing different scenarios and follow up requirements," Reinoso Webb said. "There is a lot of federal reporting. It was a very complicated case, even though it was two samples and one patient.

"But we had this wonderful communication with the CDC and made sure we did everything by the book. This is how it's been structured, and this is how the communication was supposed to happen."

Materials provided by Texas Tech UniversityNote: Content may be edited for style and length.

Continue to second article....

Highly pathogenic H5N1 avian flu detected in NY City wild birds


According to new research, a small number of New York City wild birds carry highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza. The scientific paper was published today (May 15) in the Journal of Virology, a journal of the American Society for Microbiology.

The study highlights that the interface between animals and humans that may give rise to zoonotic infections or even pandemics is not limited to rural environments and commercial poultry operations, but extends into urban centers.

Urban Avian Influenza Research

“To my knowledge, this is the first large-scale U.S. study of avian influenza in an urban area, and the first with active community involvement,” said study co-author Christine Marizzi, PhD, principal investigator of the New York City Virus Hunters (NYCVH) Program, and BioBus director of community science, Harlem, New York City.

“Birds are key to finding out which influenza and other avian viruses are circulating in the New York City area, as well as important for understanding which ones can be dangerous to both other birds and humans. And we need more eyes on the ground—that’s why community involvement is really critical.” 

Community Involvement in Avian Influenza Monitoring

The study came out of a program to monitor wild birds, which is a partnership between BioBus, the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and the Wild Bird Fund. Through the program, local high school students partake in the research and communication efforts as paid interns under expert mentorship.

Wearing appropriate protective gear, the students collect bird fecal samples in urban parks and green spaces. Additional samples from wild urban birds are submitted to the study by local animal rehabilitation centers such as the Wild Bird Fund and Animal Care Centers of New York. Students then help screen all samples in the Krammer laboratory at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai for viruses.

Findings and Significance

In the study, the NYCVH collected and screened 1927 samples between January 2022 and November 2023 and picked up the H5N1 signal by detecting it in 6 city birds representing 4 different species. All the positive samples came from the urban wildlife rehabilitation centers, stressing the critical role such centers can play in viral surveillance.

By comparing the genetic makeup of the samples to each other and other available H5N1 viruses in a public database, the researchers found that they were slightly different and belonged to 2 different genotypes, which are both a mix of Eurasian H5N1 clade virus and local North American avian influenza viruses. New York City is a popular stopover location for migrating wild birds during their remarkable journey.

Public Awareness and Safety

“It is important to mention that, because we found H5N1 in city birds, this does not signal the start of a human influenza pandemic. We know that H5N1 has been around in New York City for about 2 years and there have been no human cases reported,” Marizzi said.

Marizzi said that in their outreach, they spread awareness about H5N1 in city birds and provide information about what people can do to protect themselves. “It’s smart to stay alert and stay away from wildlife. This also includes preventing your pets from getting in close contact with wildlife,” said Marizzi. If one must handle wildlife, it is important to always use safe practices any time when handling a sick or injured bird or other animals.

Reference: 15 May 2024, Journal of Virology.
DOI: 10.1128/jvi.00626-24